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全生妇科十讲10: 乳腺增生(11/21/2011)
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全生妇科十讲10: 乳腺增生(11/21/2011)

 卢全生医师,北京中医药大学中医硕士,中国中医科学院中西医结合博士,美国乔治城大学医学院博士后,河南中医学院客座教授。 
 
  
    乳腺增生是女性最常见的乳房疾病,其发病率占乳腺疾病的首位。近些年来该病发病率呈逐年上升的趋势,年龄也越来越低龄化。据临床调查,乳腺增生病约占全部乳腺疾的75%以上,约有70%~80%的女性都有不同程度的乳腺增生,多见于25~45岁的女性。少部分乳腺增生长期迁延不愈,会发生乳腺良性肿瘤或发生恶性病变。

   乳腺增生是乳腺组织导管和乳小叶在结构上的退行性病变及进行性结缔组织的生长,其发病原因主要是由于内分泌激素失调。那么又是哪些原因导致内分泌激素紊乱呢?现代医学认为:婚育、膳食、外界环境和遗传因素是乳腺发病的主要原因。

    乳腺增生疾病的症状主要以乳房周期性疼痛和肿块为特征。起初为游漫
性胀痛,触痛为乳房外上侧及中上部为明显,月经前疼痛加剧,行经后疼痛减退或消失。严重者经前经后均呈持续性疼痛。有时疼痛向腋部、肩背部、上肢等处放射。囊性增生以乳房肿块为主要症状,肿块可为单一或多个,严重者可出现一侧或双侧乳头溢液,增生一旦形成或囊肿病变,乳房疼痛反而减轻或消失。还有的伴有月经不调痛经,腰区酸痛,大便干燥等症状。还有些患者可伴有心烦易怒、头晕、失眠等症状。           

    乳腺增生临床诊断要点为乳房中可触及肿块,边缘清,与周围组织不黏连,乳房疼痛连续超过3个月不能自行缓解,排除生理性乳痛,乳腺扫描为乳腺增生症。 由于乳腺增生主要是激素失衡造成的,所以治疗则应从调理内分泌着手。中医中药有其独到之处,尤其是冲任失调、便秘、合并乳腺增生者效果尤为突出。中医将乳腺增生病称为“乳癖”。一般认为,乳癖是由于各种原因导致肝郁气滞或冲任失调造成,临床应予疏肝解郁,调摄冲任为大法进行辨治。   

    肝郁气滞型常见一侧或两侧乳腺出现肿块和疼痛,肿块和疼痛与月经周期有关,一般在经前加重,行经后减轻,伴有情志不舒,心烦易怒,胸闷嗳气,胸胁胀满。治以疏肝理气,活血散结。冲任失调型常见一侧或两侧乳腺出现肿块和疼痛,常伴有月经不调,前后不定期,经量减少,全身症状可见怕冷,腰膝酸软,神疲乏力,耳鸣。治以温补脾肾,调摄冲任。具体治疗常中药针灸结合,内治外治结合,治疗1-3月,每获痊愈。 

     两首小方,对乳腺增生症的预防和治疗有帮助。海带50g,豆腐1块,佐料按常规加入,煮汤或炒菜饮食之。生侧柏叶30克,桔子核15克,野菊花15克,煎汤饮用。

   现代妇科专家提示,为了能及时发现乳腺疾病,提倡25岁以上女性一定要每月自查乳房。具体方法是:洗浴后站在镜前检查,双手叉腰,身体做左右旋状,从镜中观察双侧乳房的皮肤有无异常,乳头有无内陷,然后用手指的指腹贴在乳房上按顺时针或逆时针方向慢慢移动,切勿用手挤捏,以免将正常乳腺组织误认为肿块。

   当发现患有乳腺增生症后,不要惊慌失措,要保持良好的精神状态和平和的心态,平时要少吃高脂、高蛋白、低纤维的食物,同时,少吸烟和饮酒,少吃油腻和刺激性食品。多吃白菜、海带、新鲜水果、蔬菜和豆制品。注意劳逸结合,注意锻炼身体。同时一年接受一次乳腺专科检查,乳透、B超都行。超过40岁的妇女需要每年一次的钼钯照相 (Mammogram),看看有没有恶性肿瘤产生的迹象。 

    下期敬请关注全生讲中医--乳腺癌的中医防治。更多全生讲中医, 敬请访问卢全生中西医结合博士的网站www.wholelifeherb.com,或直接拨打中文热线电话301-340-1066,301-919-9898约诊. 全生中医针灸医疗中心地址:  416 Hungerford Dr, Suite 215, Rockville, MD 20850. 或 9801 Georgia Ave, Suite 337, Silver Spring, MD 20902

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